I am not amused.
For those of you who are interested, the offending executable is hpqfrucl.exe, lives in C:\Program Files\Hewlett-Packard\Digital Imaging\bin and claims to be "FRU-Client". It's whole purpose in life appears to be to display the above survey. It starts as a scheduled task named "FRU Task", running (on my system) at 10:18pm every day starting today.
That task has now been deleted and purged. Not good, HP. In my opinion this is dangerously close to adware and spyware.