Long time no see again!
When River was shooting at the Astronaut she was just using an ordinary revolver, not her space blaster from 6x02. That said, later on Canton's gun (fired by Amy) did damage the visor, so it's odd that River didn't do more damage.
On the Doctor killing the Silence: it was less what he did than how he did it. Looking at other doctors from new Who, #9
wouldn't have been able to bring himself to wipe out the Silence. #10
would have, but only after the Silence had completely failed to take whatever way out he was offering them. And even then he wouldn't have been that happy - look at what happened with #10b
and the Daleks in Journey's End. #11
on the other hand, he seems much more trigger-happy and a lot less reluctant to wipe out whatever the monster of the week is.
Future!Doctor did remember Jim the Fish, but present!Doctor didn't. And if you look at the end of 6x02, he seems to hardly know River even though this is at least the third time he's met her, and earlier on in the episode he does seem to know her more (there's the quote I was considering using: "She *jumped* off a *building*" "She does that sometimes. Amy, Rory, open all the doors to the swimming pool!").
I'm not sure what you mean by that gif - is it about the person walking in the background, or just a random gif?